ESP or extrasensory perception is perception occurring independently of sight, hearing, or other sensory processes. People who have extrasensory perception are said to be psychic. It is commonly called ESP, ESP refers to telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition, and in recent years, remote viewing and clairaudience. The existence of ESP and other paranormal powers such as telekinesis, are disputed, though systematic experimental research on these subjects, known collectively as psi, has been ongoing for over a century in parapsychology.

History of ESP
ESP is most commonly called the "sixth sense." It can provide the individual with information of the present, past, and future; as it seems to originate in a second, or alternate reality.
The term "ESP" was used in 1870 by Sir Richard Burton. A French researcher, Dr. Paul Joire, in 1892 used the term ESP to describe the ability of person who had been hypnotized or were in a trance state to externally sense things without using their ordinary senses.

In the 1920's a Munich ophthalmologist, Dr. Rudolph Tischner, used ESP in describing the "externalization of sensibility." Then in the 1930s the American parapsychologist J. B. Rhine popularized the term to include psychic phenomena similar to sensory functions. Rhine was among the first parapsychologists to test ESP phenomena in the laboratory.

These studies of ESP were rarely experimental. The studies consisted of mostly spontaneous incidents that were located. Many of the individuals studied were self-claimed "sensitives" or psychics. Rarely were they examined under anything resembling laboratory conditions. The researchers conducting the examinations resembled prosecuting lawyers. The subjects were bombarded with questions, those standing up the best were judged creditable.


Experimental studies of ESP
The first card-guessing ESP experiments were conducted by Rhine at Duke University in 1930. The cards consisted of five designs, now called ESP symbols, a square, a circle, a plus sign, a five pointed star, and a set of three wavy lines. The symbols were printed singly, in black ink, on cards resembling playing cards.

In the classic Rhine experiments on ESP, the subject tries to guess or "call" the order of the five symbols when they are randomly arranged in a deck of 25 ESP cards. The likelihood of calling a card correctly by chance is one in five. Therefore, it is possible to calculate how often a particular score is likely to occur by chance in a given number of calls. It was Rhine'' argument that when his subjects made high scores that could be expected by chance only once in a thousand tries, or once in a million, they displayed "extrachance" results, or ESP.

More recently computer games are increasingly being used to test ESP. The computer is programmed so that a random series determines the targets, and the subjects attempt to outguess the computer.

Evidences demonstrate that ESP does exist, but it cannot be explained or quantified by physical laws; and furthermore, that the mind (consciousness) and the brain are two separate entities. Simultaneously, research in quantum physics points to the existence of a second, nonmaterial universe. So, the time is fast approaching when Western scientists must come to terms with the Eastern mystical concept: "that an extrasensory force exists in another realty, and intersects and integrates with the physical world."

Magician James Randi, better known as Amazing Randi turned the tables on belivers in the paranormal by unmasking fraudulent claims in books like FLIM-FLAM(1982). In a stunt in his early days, Randi freed himself from a Straitjacket while dangling upside down over a NewYork city side-walk.
To predict the future people use paranormal techniques. Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzine King used Seances to seek political direction from the spirits of the departed.
Yuri Geller bent spoons by sheer will.(remember, a must watch scene of matrix??) His abilities have often been shown to rely on magician tricks and theatrics, but some of his tests and performances astounded and intrigued even the most skeptical observers.
When scientists or academics have conducted tests on ESP, the results were often clouded and never proven. The Rhine experiments were performed at Duke university by Joseph Banks Rhine, who conducted ESP experiments in the 1930s. In his book, he claimed to have found solid evidence of ESP. He also made 'ESP-cards' famous by using them in successful guessing experiments. Other psychologists were unable to mimic his results, and it is now known that Rhine's exprimnts where poorly designed.
In a series of experiments in the 1970s at SRI International, physicists Harold Puthoff and Russel Targ claimed that certain subjects cud 'see' a distant place thru the eyes of another person. This too proved erroneous and remote viewing was considered virtually nonexistant.
Then again another failure awaited the Ganzfield experiments, which however were meticulously administered and most carefully examined, the tests failed to produce satisfactory results.


FOUNDING OF CSICOP:--Pseudoscience-the label skeptics give ESP and other paranormal phenomena-is not defined as erroneous science but as science wich does not stand up to the rigorous testing on wich the scientific method is based. Worried by media coverage of ESP, UFOs, crop circles, and leviating gurus, philosopher Paul Kurtz founded the committee for the scientific Investigation Of Claims of The Paranormal (CSICOP) in 1976, an organisation of scientists, academics, magicians and others dedicated to scrutinizaing the pseudosciences. One of its purpose was to tell the media the other side of the story. After launching a magazine dedicated to debunking the pseudosciences, The Skeptical Inquirer, CSICOP established a Web Site that stands as a vigilant voice of scientific (and common) sense in an age of psychic hotlines, horoscopes, exorcisms, haunted houses and purported alien abductions.
But back to ESP,if tests were to support its reality, it wudnt be the first time scientists were proved wrong. Science's purpose is in fact to test and test again. And for sure, researchers will never stop trying to plumb the more mysterious workings of human mind.

This phenomenon is also known as Déjà vu.
The term "déjà vu" (French for "already seen", also called paramnesia) describes the experience of feeling that one has witnessed or experienced a new situation previously.

The experience of déjà vu seems to be very common; in formal studies 70% or more of the population report having experienced it at least once. References to the experience of déjà vu are also found in literature of the past, indicating it is not a new phenomenon. It has been extremely difficult to invoke the déjà vu experience in laboratory settings, therefore making it a subject of few empirical studies. Recently, researchers have found ways to recreate this sensation using hypnosis.


Scientific Research...
In recent years, déjà vu has been subjected to serious psychological and neurophysiological research. The most likely explanation of déjà vu is that it is not an act of "precognition" or "prophecy", but rather an anomaly of memory; it is the impression that an experience is "being recalled".
This explanation is substantiated by the fact that the sense of "recollection" at the time is strong in most cases, but that the circumstances of the "previous" experience (when, where and how the earlier experience occurred) are quite uncertain. Likewise, as time passes, subjects can exhibit a strong recollection of having the "unsettling" experience of déjà vu itself, but little to no recollection of the specifics of the event(s) or circumstance(s) they were "remembering" when they had the déjà vu experience. In particular, this may result from an overlap between the neurological systems responsible for short-term memory (events which are perceived as being in the present) and those responsible for long-term memory (events which are perceived as being in the past). Many theorists believe that the memory anomaly occurs when one's conscious mind has a slight delay in receiving perceptive input. In other words, the unconscious mind perceives current surroundings before the conscious mind does. This causes one's conscious self to perceive something that is already in one's memory, even though it was in one's memory only a split second before it was perceived.


Relation with dreams...
Some believe déjà vu is the memory of dreams. Though the majority of dreams are never remembered, a dreaming person can display activity in the areas of the brain that process long-term memory. It has been speculated that dreams read directly into long-term memory, bypassing short-term memory entirely. In this case, déjà vu might be a memory of a forgotten dream with elements in common with the current waking experience. This may be similar to another phenomenon known as déjà rêvé, or "already dreamed."

Not only is the link to dreams as they pertain to déjà vu the subject of scientific and psychological studies, it is also a subject of spiritual texts, as is found, for example, in the writings of the Bahá'í Faith.

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