Alchemy is a complex subject with many different interconnected aspects. Many people still only think of the quest of the philosophers' stone to change base metals into gold.For Hermes said of this Science: Alchemy is a Corporal Science simply composed of one and by one, naturally conjoining things more precious, by knowledge and effect, and converting them by a natural commixtion into a better kind. A certain other said: Alchemy is a Science, teaching how to transform any kind of metal into another: and that by a proper medicine, as it appeared by many Philosophers' Books. Alchemy therefore is a science teaching how to make and compound a certain medicine, which is called Elixir, the which when it is cast upon metals or imperfect bodies, does fully perfect them in the very projection.

The origins of the alchemical theory stretched back to Greece, particularly to the time of Aristotle and his students, and other Greek writers of medicine. This is not surprising since the Greeks initiated theoretical science, and their conjectures were influential throughout the academic world. Although the alchemical theory originated with the Aristotelians there is evidence that alchemy was practiced in Egypt. The working with gold in Egypt was assigned to a priestly class centered in the temple of the god Ptah at Memphis. Ptah was the patron of smelters and goldsmiths, his temple was "goldsmithy," and his priests were distinguished by such titles as "Great Wielder of the Hammer," and "He who knows the Secret of the Goldsmiths." As further evidence, the alchemist Zosimos of Panopolis, writing about 300 CE, said, "I have examined in detail a furnace in the ancient temple of Memphis..." and he indicated that it was similar to ones used by alchemists. Also there are writings on papyri of recipes for the preparation, or falsification, of silver, gold and other precious stones.

Aristotle and alchemy
When speaking of matter, for example, it is currently held that there are different kinds of matter; sulphur and iron are different kinds of matter. But the Aristotelians held there was just one kind of matter only in different shapes; to them sulphur and iron was of the same kind of matter but only in different shapes. Currently when speaking of the shape or form of something the understanding it that its geometrical shape is being referred to; but for the Aristotelians there was just one kind of form; and, according to the Aristotelian theory matter changes shape through the transformation of the qualities of the elements within the matter. Then there is the term spirit which currently can mean either a volatile liquid, or a courageous attitude, or an incorporeal life; but in Grecian times the word spiritus or pneuma meant literally "breath," and could be applied to a vapor, gas, disembodied spirit, or even to the Holy Ghost. The point is to comprehend the alchemical process one must understand the alchemist's meaning of the terms he uses.

The Aristotelian theory of the four elements of matter was based on a creation theory or myth. All matter was assumed to have come from prima materia, or prime, chaotic matter, which might only come into actual existence if impressed by "form." The "form" rose out of the chaos of prime matter forming the four elements: fire, air, eater, and earth. Creation by the god was the result of blending these "simple bodies" together in the correct proportions to produce the infinite varieties of life.

According to Aristotle, the four elements are distinguishable from one another by their "qualities." The four primary qualities are fluid or moist, dry, hot, and cold. Each element possesses two of the primary qualities while the other two are contraries and cannot be combined. Therefore, the four possible of paired qualities are: hot and dry = fire; hot and fluid (or moist) = air; cold and fluid = water; cold and dry = earth. In each element one quality predominates over the other: in earth it is dryness; in water it is cold; in air, fluidity; in fire, heat.

Transmutation supposedly was the obvious consequence of this theory: any element may be transformed into another through the quality which they have in common. Thus, fire can become air through the medium of heat just as air can become water through the medium of fluidity, and so on. Also two elements can become a third by deleting one quality from each: by deleting the dry and cold qualities, fire and water become air, and, by parting with the hot and fluid qualities, the same elements become earth.

Newton as Alchemist
Isaac Newton is said to devote more time to studying and writing about alchemy than either optics or physics the work for which he is famous. Most of the information concerning Newton's studies in occultism is speculative since much of his work was destroyed by fire in his laboratory and that knowledge is gone forever. However, while doing alchemical work he appeared to have suffered a nervous breakdown which may have resulted from the psychological transformation that the alchemical process was supposed to produce or from a metallic poison caused by mercury, lead or some other substance. Like many men of the day who shared Newton's interests, Newton had knowledge of both astronomy and astrology, at that time interrelated, and some describe him a good astronomer as well as a good alchemist. Although Newton was good at physical sciences, his mathematical studies led to his discoveries in physics and astronomy, it would be in correct to describe his worldview as purely mechanist; like other alchemists he still was interested in relationships between the world, God, and man.

Elixir- The philopher's stone (Paras)
The Philosopher's Stone is also known as the Elixir, the transmuting agent in alchemy. This process of transmutation was effected by a powder called xenon. The contemporary meaning is a cosmetic or dusting powder. The word Elixir canes from the Arabic Al-Iksir meaning powder.

For alchemists and Aristotle matter was not something that you could see or touch. The world, the material world, consisted of five basic elements- Earth, Air, Fire, Water and Ether. This last element was the prima materia, the element that made up all things in this world. It was the key to finding the Philosophers Stone (Lapis Philosophorum). This prima materia had an enormous potency, a small quantity of which would "transform a very much larger quantity of base metals into silver or gold, and which had unexampled powers of healing the human body and indeed of perfecting all things in their kind.

The goal of the Great Work of alchemy, called also the Art, is the "Philosopher's Stone". The Stone was viewed as a magical touchstone that could immediately perfect any substance or situation. The Philosopher's Stone has been associated with the Salt of the World, the Astral Body, the Elixir, and even Jesus Christ. The Elixir of the alchemists has essentially the same ability to perfect any substance. When applied to the human body, the Elixir cures diseases and restores youth.
The alchemists' dream is to attain knowledge of the mysterious Philosopher's Stone, or "that Elixir by which such wonders are performed".

The Stone is "a blessing beyond all blessings upon earth... given to but very few, and to those few rather by revelation of the good angels of God than the proper industry of man". In modern language the Stone is a symbol of incorruptible wisdom achieved by uniting both rational, intellectual thinking (masculine, rational, right brain activity) with our intuitive knowing of the heart (feminine, intuitive left brain activity)

Although the alchemists went to great pains to conceal the true order of the steps of the formula for making the Stone, the correct order according to the Emerald Tablet is:

The first four steps take place Below, in the realm of matter.

The last three steps take place Above, in the realm of mind and creative imagination.

Scientific Researches related to elixir
The group of russian researchers were making disquisitions in Tibet in the summer of 1999.Their work did not concern that marvellous discovery, which they have made absolutely fortuitously. One scientist managed to photograph an ancient manuscript, which was carefully guarded in an outlying montane monastery and even to get a small nephrite vessel filled by a pleasantly smelling dense liquid.When they came back to St.-Petersburg and translated the manuscript from Sanskrit, they understood, that it is the preparation recipe of a high-power stimulating elixir, which was called by ancient physicians - " The renovater of life ".
The recipe is a tincture of a ten rather known, but very scarce, plants in a special proportion.
By conducting of a number of experiments, it was possible to determine high-power regenerative effect of this elixir on structures of damaged cells , time of life of a cell of a human liver, for example, was increased at six times.
The experiments on mice have shown result, - the use of the elixir results in preservation on continuous time of physical age on peak of development of an organism.
Due to selflessness of volunteers, it was possible to determine extremely salutary and regenerating effect of the elixir for an human organism.
Elderly volunteers had changes: - restoring of a hair colour, restoring of a menstrual cycle of women, smoothing of skin-wrinkles and removal of a muscle infirmity, an increase of a sexual potency, restoring of normal exchange of substances etc., and many other effects of the fast rejuvenation of organism.

The unique effect of the Elixir was so great, that even it has created number of problems for some volunteers because of mismatch of their guise and documentary data about age.Understanding the degree of the responsibility, all researches were made in the full privacy and by own poor finance of scientists, this factor has allowed also to detect a repeating of turning on of the mechanism of aging, after a discontinuance of the Elixir use.
Thus, the secret of eternal juvenility is solved, but the cost, because of use of the extremely scarce plants, the range of which is in regions of southern Siberia and mountains of India and China, is simply huge and measures up to tens thousands of dollars per one year.
By becoming before a dilemma, whether to give eternal juvenility to billionaires, or to make it accessible for many simple people, we have developed the organizational system permitting to use the Elixir by EACH, WHO WISHES TO BE ETERNAL YOUNG.

The translation of sanskrit manuscript
The scientists speak:

That somebody told in the ancient times, that there was a wise-man, having gift of internal vision, the most intellectual from humanity.
But his person grew old also his century was spent, as time, karma and nature dominate in a body consisting of five elements.
His memory has weakened and teeth were lost, the liver was bad, the cough with slime and with a noise was getting out.
The body is defeated by infirmity also.

But in wandering to various places he has received from this knowledge, and he has become rather aware in knowledge of effective medicinal plants and grasses and by compounding them in the special structure, he has used it and life came back to his body.

Certain descriptions of philosopher's stone
Descriptions of philosopher's stone are many and not always the same. Paracelsus called it fixed and dark red; Berigard of Pisa said that its color is that of poppies, Raymond Lulle said that its color resembled that of carbuncles; Helvetius claimed that it was brilliant yellow. Although many alchemists gave their own, and often contradicting descriptions, Khalid summed it up as "The stone unifies in itself all colors. It is white, red, yellow, heavenly blue and green." The transmutation is a highly personal process, and thus each alchemist is having a different view on it. Some alchemists were talking about physical substances.

The philosopher’s stone is a symbol of perfect man, the end result of the philosophical work. Although it is often connected with quicksilver and sulfur, the philosopher’s stone is difficult to describe with words. We just do not have the proper language for it. "One has never been able to understand what the ancient philosophers meant with the philosopher’s stone. One can not answer this question before one realizes that the alchemists directed their attention on something from the unconscious. Only the psychology of the unconscious can explain the secret. The theory of the unconscious teaches us that as long as this projection is directed onto that something, it remains inaccessible. Therefore the works of the ancient alchemists reveal so little of the secret of alchemy." (Carl Gustav Jung). One should also consider that alchemists often used symbolic language. Symbols are means to convey information, but it demands a whole different approach of understanding, something we have difficulty with in out modern society.

Almost everybody who has heard about the philosopher’s stone and its power, asks where it can be found. The philosopher always answers twofold. First, they say that Adam has taken the philosopher’s stone with him from Paradise, and that it is now present within you, within me, and within everybody, and that the birds of far countries has taken it with them. Second, the philosophers answer that it can be found in the earth, in the mountains, in the air and in the river. Now what way should one seek? To me, both ways; but each way has its own way." (Michael Maier, 1617).

"The philosopher’s stone is first and for all the creation of man by himself, that is the entire conquest of his potentials and his future; it is especially the complete liberation of his will, that will give him the absolute rulership over the Azoth and the realm of magnetism, that is the absolute power over the universal magnetic force." (Eliphas Levi, 19th century).

The philosopher’s stone is also present in the Grail legends. There it is the grail chalice filled with chivalrous and good deeds, that will give back the fertility to the realm of the King. The King in these legends is our higher self, our divine self, the spirit, the heavenly man or Adam Kadmon, that had been cast down into the earthy worlds. Finding this stone, or the divine in oneself and working on oneself to bring it to the surface, will give us access to the Palace of the King. Wolfram von Eschenbach called the Grail a precious stone and the bearer of rich fruit of Wisdom and Purity.

The philosopher’s stone can also be seen in relation to the life force. On some alchemical engravings water flows out of a stone. The stone is the philosopher’s stone which is the source of the elixir of life ‘the is like fire but flows like water". We all have it within us.

Elixir or philosopher's stone
The elixir is the same as the philosopher’s stone, but the alchemists use the term elixir to talk primarily about its energetic and healing properties.

According to some alchemists, the elixir is the second phase in the Great Work, while the tincture is the third phase. As the second phase is albedo, or whiteness, the tincture is also called white tincture. It is the state of cooked or digested matter that has now gained a white color. When it is projected onto metals it changes them into silver. It is a medicine for plants and minerals. We are talking here about a purified spirit (of man) that, although it is only in the second stage, is already healing to body and soul.

The red elixir corresponds with the third phase, rubedo or redness. The red elixir is the perfect stone. The Arab alchemists just called it elixir, meaning ‘yeast’. Yeast makes dough rise, what in the philosophical sense means ‘multiplication’. In relation to the elixir, it makes spiritual energy multiply and therefore it works in a healing way in living beings. The elixir cures all ailments, and makes all imperfect metals (like the organs, cells…) perfect (it makes them healthy again).

The term tincture is used for its penetrating quality. The tincture is the last degree of transmutation of the natural bodies. It brings all imperfect things to their perfection. Paracelsus calls the tincture a very noble substance that colors all metallic and human bodies, and changes them in a much better essence. It penetrates all bodies and let them ‘rise’ as with yeast.

Artephius (12th century) wrote in his ‘Secret Book’ that he had been living for a thousand years due to the elixir. Similar statements were done by other alchemists. It is said that the well-known Comte de Saint-German (17th-18th century) did not age because of the elixir. Remember this is not about a physical substance, but it is the divine energy within the alchemist that has been brought forward and that keeps the body young.

It always has been a strong idea that there was some kind of liquid, or drink that could prolong the life span and give the body a (near) immortality. Unfortunately common man took this often literally and tried to create a physical liquid. This liquid, or water of life, is a symbolic term for what is present within man himself.

Elixir / Amrit / Aab-e-hayaat (Water of Life)
In the ancient scriptures of the Hindus (the vedas and the Puranas) one finds the concept of Amrita. Amrita is the drink or food of the gods. It is the food that gives immortality. It was made out of the ocean of milk. The Greek gods drank Ambrosia or Nektar, which had the same characteristics.

The alchemists and cabalists speak of the water of life in terms of for example the Ab-e-Hyat or ‘prickling, fiery essence’. More commonly it is called the ‘alkahest’ or common solvent. The alchemist makes his tincture by purifying his body, his emotions and his thoughts, until he identifies himself with his divine essence. When the divine essence has been realized, the water of life pours forth and takes away all remaining dross, leaving pure gold.

The elixir or tincture makes a new man from the alchemist. He is reborn and immortal. He partakes of divine wisdom and unity with the Source of all. He has become a heavenly king.

Alchemy and toxicology
Although alchemists failed achieve their goal in the transmutation of lesser metals into silver and gold, they succeeded to a degree in improving chemical techniques, equipment, and processes used, and built up their own methodology, symbolism, and style of communication.

An independent manual on toxicology is Kitab as-Sumum, in five treatises, attributed to Shanaq the Indian. It was translated into Arabic by al-'Abbas b. Sa'id al-Jawhari for caliph al-Ma'mun (reigned 197-217/813-833). It is a compilation from Greek and Indian sources of the third/ninth century. In the introduction, it is reported that the book was considered a secret of Indian sages and was consi-dered 'unique' and 'unequaled'. Kings kept it in their treasure cabinets, hidden from their children and bosom friends. Poisons are discussed and how they can be detected by sight, touch, taste, or by the toxic symptoms which they cause. Descriptions are given of poisoned drinks, foods, clothes, carpets, beds, skin lotions, and eye salves, as well as narcotics and universal antidotes.

A famous Arab alchemist, Abu Musa Jabir b. Hayyan wrote a book on Poisons and their Antidotes as-Sufi al-Kufi. In its six chapters, the author identifies poisons by their kinds and natural origins, their modes of action, dosages, methods of administration, choice of drugs, and the target organ which is attacked by each particular poison -a proposition that is modern in its chemo-therapeutic application. He also discussed general human anatomy, the four humors and how they are affected by purgatives and lethal drugs, warned against poisonous or poisoned matter, and prescribed anti-dotes. His discussion of body principles and subordinate organs and their function is similar to the previously mentioned Greek classification.

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